I had downloaded a few mods for Factorio to try them out, but realized they disabled the steam achievements.
I've since updated to .17 and removed the mods on my current saved game.
Will doing this re-enable the steam achievements?
I have confirmed that as long as you do not use console commands and you remove the mods from the save you will indeed get the steam achievements.
I confirmed by trying it myself. I don't have any source links.