I have searched all over the internet for any answers on how to use the items stated in the question in the Geometry Dash Level Editor but nothing was very accurate or detailed. The help in-game and out (see hyperlink) is absolutely useless and I really just want to know how to use them.
Collision blocks are blocks that activate the 'collision' trigger when they collide. You can move these blocks with other triggers, and they can be used to trigger things like custom death effects, effects from dynamic movements, etc.
Triggers are essentially things that cause other things to happen. They are invisible while playing the level.
Most triggers are activated when the player moves past the trigger in the level - you can see this point indicated by a vertical blue line. However, triggers can also be set to 'touch triggered' mode. This means the player will physically have to touch the trigger, e.g if I place a trigger (in 'touch triggered' mode) above the player, and they jump and hit it, the trigger is activated.
Triggers must be set to a group in order to change anything. Groups are things that can be added to objects in the 'edit group' menu. Adding an object to a group allows it to be affected by triggers. To get triggers to affect a group, you go to the 'edit object' menu and change the 'target group ID' to the group ID of the objects you wish to affect. You do not need to add the trigger to the group.
From here, the guide should adequately explain each trigger in detail - if you need more information, please inform me.