Upon investigating the lore inside the colony ship, the Hope, you come across the very first audio logs of Phineas Welles. In these you discover he chose his own name.
This would probably mean Phineas Welles is a survivor of the crew of the Hope.
Digging through the rest of the lore on the ship, it is clear only two people could have survived. Either Phineas is the Chief Engineer, and cannibal, Frank, or he is the ships captain.
Is there any definitive proof as to who Phineas is?