This is a self-answered question. If you have additional details, feel free to comment or post another answer.
Short answer: Does order matter? Yes, order matters.
All of your parameters are calculated from left to right. Here are some examples (command on top, result below):
/execute as @e[type=cow] if entity @s[type=cow] as @e[type=sheep] run say Hello, World!
[Sheep] Hello, World!
Switches the executing entity to the cow, then if it detects itself as a cow, switch the executing entity to the sheep and make it say
as parameter is used to change the entity executing the command. The switch to the new entity in control is made right as the parameter is processed, not when the
run command is reached.
as parameter is relative to the previous:
/execute as @e[type=cow,limit=1] as @s run say Hello World!
[Cow] Hello World!
In this command, whoever is running the
run command will say
Hello, World to the chat with their namestamp. But who will that be, me or the cow?
In this case, it will be the cow who will run the command, because the 2nd parameter (
as @s) is relative to the first. Because the entity was previously set to the cow,
@s will refer back to the cow, because the switch to the new entity is made right then and there, not when it gets to
Also, we know that
/execute as does not change position, right? Well because of this mechanic we just went over, we can force
as to include position by doing this:
/execute as @e[type=cow,limit=1] at @s run ...
@s is relative to the entity currently in control of the command, that means it will refer to the cow. Therefore the position of execution will be moved to the cow.
Remember though, if you want to switch to another entity and include its position again, you will need to type both parameters again (switching the 1st target selector to reference the next entity to be in control)
store is a special case. With
store, the location to save is "primed" when the command runner gets to that position. Then, once the command finishes executing, the result is stored in the primed position, even if the executing entity/position is changed.
/execute as @e[type=cow] store result score @s test as ExpertCoder14 if entity @a[name=ExpertCoder14]
Although I may be the one that checks for the player, it is still the cow whose score is updated. This is because the
score parameter was primed while the cow had control of the command.
Learn more about
/execute on the Minecraft Wiki: Commands/execute