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I just need to know how the pitch value in the /playsound command correlates to notes.

e.g what note would this play?

/playsound minecraft:block.note_block.bell block @a[distance=..30] ~ ~ ~ 100000 2

Thanks!

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In the Official Minecraft Wiki /playsound documentation, the pitch value for Java Edition is described as a frequency multiplier. Although the allowed range of the pitch value is from 0 to 2, values under 0.5 are treated the same as 0.5, so the useful range is from 0.5 to 2.

The pitch value description refers you to the note block documentation for more information. In the pitch table on that page, you are interested in the column of /playsound pitch values. Here are the same values, rounded to three decimal places:

value  pitch   value  pitch   value  pitch
0.5    F#      1      F#      2      F#
0.53   G       1.059  G
0.561  G#      1.122  G#
0.595  A       1.189  A
0.63   A#      1.26   A#
0.667  B       1.335  B
0.707  C       1.414  C
0.749  C#      1.498  C#
0.794  D       1.587  D
0.841  D#      1.682  D#
0.891  E       1.782  E
0.944  F       1.888  F

Because the pitch value is a frequency multiplier, that means when you go from a particular pitch letter to the same pitch letter in the next higher octave, you multiply the value by 2. For example, in the pitch table you can see that the lowest F# is 0.5, the next higher F# is 1, and the F# after that is 2.

Further down the note block page, the instruments table tells you exactly what the lowest and highest F# of each instrument is:

F#1 to F#3: bass, didgeridoo
F#2 to F#4: guitar
F#3 to F#5: banjo, bit, harp, iron_xylophone, pling
F#4 to F#6: cow_bell, flute
F#5 to F#7: bell, chime, xylophone

At the top of the instruments table, when you hover over the word "Range", a tooltip message explains the ranges are in scientific pitch notation. In scientific pitch notation, C4 is middle C and A4 is 440 Hz.

So if you play the bell instrument with the pitch value of 2, you will get F#7 (about 2960.0 Hz), the pitch of the highest F# key on an 88-key piano.

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