/kill is said to be infinity damage but I have a question can you really survive it in Java edition. However, it is possible that you can pretty much survive this if you are on Minecraft Java Edition in 1.8 or lower and you can just have resistance 5 and you will survive this but can you make armour that helps you survive in 1.16 and in java-edition.
No, it is not.
/kill command dealt "void" damage before the introduction of the instant kill. Because the protection enchantment or the armours base protection does not reduce damage dealt from the void you would still be killed.
Even with modded armour with high protection or 32k enchantments, this would still be impossible due to the fact "void" damage ignores armour.