It sounds like you have not progressed the final Brotherhood quest "The Nuclear Option". After entering the teleporter relay inside the Institute, you are teleported to the top of the Mass Fusion Building, the one you jumped off of. In order to continue the quest and beat the game, you must press the large red button indicated by a quest marker to detonate the explosives in the Institute. After that, a cinematic video plays and the main quest is over. You are most likely unable to fast travel because the game still considers you to be on top of the Mass Fusion Building in based on the quest stage.
The optimal way to fix this would be to return to the building and complete the quest. If you are playing on PC, you are able to use the in-game console and cheat your way back there. Simply press the ~ on your keyboard to bring up the console, then type in
MassFusionExt02and press enter. This ought to bring you to the place where you can progress quest and fix your fast travel issue.
If this does not work or you are not playing on PC, then you will be unable to complete the quest unless you find some way to return to the Mass Fusion Building. Otherwise, your best bet will be to re-load a saved game made before being teleported to the building. Simply select
LOAD from the main menu of the game and select an appropriate save. You will lose any progress you made after falling off the building, but this way you will be able to complete the game.
If neither of these options work, it is likely that your save data is corrupt or the game itself has bugged out.