I've been having very persistent issues on an old laptop of mine trying to get minecraft 1.12.2 to work. I have tried a lot of things and narrowed the issue down to what is almost certainly an engine / rendering / software issue that I can't seem to pinpoint.
Here are the specifics:
This computer is more than capable of running minecraft. 1ish GHZ processor, 6 GB of memory, Intel 4400. Everything I can find about these stats implies that it should work fine at 60 fps vanilla. Additionally, on my smaller, much slower, work-only mini-laptop with much worse stats, it runs better. I am very convinced it's not a hardware specification issue.
FPS is locked to 1-2. Nothing I change in settings fixes this. Optifine doesn't fix it, minimum everything doesn't fix it, nothing changes. In the lag-o-meter (which I can't provide a screenshot of now due to crashes on start), the graph isn't a graph but a solid red block which occupies the entirety of the left half of the screen, leading me to believe (according to documentation I've read about the meaning of the graph) that there is a serious rendering error occuring somewhere that is blocking everything.
Minecraft Version is 1.12.2 but I don't think that should matter. Running Java 8 Version 301, freshly installed. I've done everything: using MultiMC to reinstall minecraft, reinstalling Java, even completely reseting the PC itself (wiping the disk and reinstalling Windows). The problem persists. (EDIT: One thing I would note is that the laptop handles Bedrock edition without a hitch, but not Java edition. The possibility of CPU usage being a problem was brought up in the comments but the mini-laptop I used as a bench mark that runs Minecraft at an acceptable framerate has similar clock speed.)
To complicate the issue (and perhaps related as well), is the fact that there are seemingly random crashes on world-load due to a MEMORY_ACCESS_VIOLATION occurring in the Java runtime itself. This issue occurred before the system reset and after as well, although after the reset I was able to launch a world successfully once before the crashes started. They only appear to occur while loading a world.
I'm at a complete loss of what to do here to get Minecraft to work on this laptop. I have no idea what would cause this and what settings would persist through a full system reset to cause this issue to persist. I'm familiar with technical computer stuff but don't know much about Java or minecraft internals so I don't know where to proceed from here, and I'm just about out of energy to throw at the problem.
Thank you for any help you can provide.