According to Minecraft Wiki:
Placing a carpet above the campfire leaves room for the bees to hover beneath the nest and still avoid taking fire damage. In Java Edition, the smoke coming through the carpet also calms the bees. In Bedrock Edition, a carpet is treated as an obstruction that removes the calming effect of the campfire's smoke.
I tried and this works the same with trapdoors (as confirmed on Mojang bug tracker).
So, is there a workaround?
I'd like to harvest my beehives without taking fire damage AND without making bees angry against me.