As of Minecraft 1.0, does armour take damage when you fall?
No, armour does not get damaged from falling. This is tested in this video.
Armor in Minecraft is not damaged from any fall of any height, unless the boots are enchanted with Feather Falling I, II or III.
As of 1.0, maybe not. But in beta 1.6/7, falling did damage armor, as it will damage life points.
Protection protects from fall damage, but doesn't reduce armor durability when doing so. Otherwise, protection would wear down armor more quickly.
In the later Minecraft betas, armor has its own health bar, so when you fall it will take a chunk from 1 of the 4 armor categories.