Is there a limit on how many Dragon Souls you can store? A couple of times after a battle, the dragon does not give me a soul and doesn't even disintegrate. Most times this happens I'll have at least 1-4 souls in my inventory.
If a respawned Dragon is killed again (as in, those that rest atop Word Walls outside of dungeons), it will not yield any Dragon Souls.
(source: elderscrolls wikia)
It's possible you killed one of these respawning Dragon. Do you remember if this happened at a World Wall?
There's also a link of known bugs on that page.
I can't imagine so, I have at least 30 souls on my inventory, so I havent seen any indication of a limit
A couple of times after a battle, the dragon does not give me a soul and doesn't even disintegrate.
This issue should have been fixed as of Patch 1.2:
Fixed rare issue with dragons not properly giving souls after death
Souls of killed dragons should always be absorbed by the player character (spoiler: except when you currently have a particular set of Dragonborn DLC quests active). There a bug, though, regarding respawned dragons not giving up souls after death. This has been fixed by the Unofficial Skyrim Patch:
Fixed some encounter dragons not burning up nor giving the player a soul when slain (respawned dragons were not being properly reset)
There's not. I have about 25, but like that other guy said, respawned dragons will not give you their souls.
In this period of 2017 Skyrim should have no limit of the dragon souls, I personally have 42 dragon souls. So in case you were In 2013 or 2014 I may be off on the knowledge.