Mystcraft is a mod that includes many different world generation features including a Void Age which is exactly what you describe. If you aren't partial against cheating then the notebook obtainable via the Creative Mode inventory will have all the different symbols available already learnt so that you can custom build whatever type of age you like.
The only other way is to use a map editing tool such as MCEdit to create a blank map, however this is limited to what you pre-generate as there's no way to make Minecraft generate blank chunks by default.
You can use MCEdit to create a completely blank world in vanilla Minecraft. Just create a world from scratch, and add some blank chunks. Your world will have nothing at all in it.
A couple of warnings, however:
New chunks generated will be normal, since there is no way to make a "blank world" seed. You'll need to make as many chunks as you need in MCEdit.
If you don't place any blocks at all, even if you edit the world in creative mode, you will not be able to add any new blocks to the world since there are no preexisting blocks to place new blocks on top of. You might want to add just one as a starting point.
This is pretty easy. When creating a new world, select superflat type, click customize, go to presets, and replace the text in the preset box with 2;0;1. Then once you have created the world, use this command to place a block.
If you use MCEdit, and you don't need a rediculous amount of layers. You can use layercontrol to select the layers you want and delete them. Then, if you use the chunk control to create superflat chunks there and set the height to 1 and turn off grass, it will make a layer of bedrock right at the bottom. Then all you need to do is select and replace the bedrock with air!
One great idea would be is for minecraft versions with customizable superflat worlds,
Go to create a world
Choose a gaming mode (I suggest you use Creative)
Go to more World options World Type >SuperFlat >Customize >Presets
Clear everything in the "Want to share your preset with someone" box.
Type in 95
And Ta-Da! Your world is made up of locked chests which slowly disappear.
if you can't wait do 12, but you may need a fast computer because it will make everything into sand and when you either place or break a block, everything falls in the void and has a big chance of making you lag.
WARNING: THIS STRATEGY CREATES HUGE LAG AND YOU WILL NEED A STRONG COMPUTER. I TRIED IT, QUIT OUT, AND NOW MY WORLD WON'T LOAD. MINECRAFT 1.7.2.
Click "Create New World".
Change the gamemode to creative.
Select "More World Options".
Change World Type to Superflat.
Select "Use Preset".
Set the preset to Desert.
Select "Done" and delete all layers except for sand.
Select "Use Preset" again. Then, in the top box, take the only 8 you find and turn it into a 1.
Select "Done". It should now tell you the only layer is a top layer of 1-block-thick sand.
Select "Done" and then "Create New World". You should spawn into a world of sand and filled with cactus and slimes and dead bushes.
Hover over the spot you want to place a block for your first island and set the spawn using /setworldspawn.
Prepare for intense lag and place whatever block you want the bottom of your island to be- NOT SAND OR GRAVEL.
After a few minutes of lag, you should have only your block in the world. 16. Build the first island or whatever of your world around it. TIP: If you move into different chunks, some sand may still be there. Simply place a sand or gravel, endure the lag, and there's another few chunks of air.