In all likelihood this was caused by removing one of the gaming-related apps that come with a stock Windows 10. You may have used W10Privacy, BCUninstaller or even just PowerShell to remove such app. For example in W10Privacy the respective settings (in the User-Apps tab) look like this:
Very likely uninstalling one (or all) of these items (as I did) cause ...
In my case I've solved the problem deleting a duplicate tag in EDLaunch.exe.config:
leaving only this one:
Found here: https://www.reddit.com/r/EliteDangerous/comments/bfmm5n/if_launcher_does_not_start_in_elite_dangerous/